COMMUNICATION   Managers/supervisors with high scores on this scale are good listeners and skilled in transmitting to others the intent of their own words, actions, and manner of expression.

 DELEGATION   Managers/supervisors who are skilled in delegation achieve high productivity by selecting the most capable delegatees, clearly communicating the objectives to be achieved, providing maximum empowerment, and holding delegatees accountable for results.

 EMPOWERMENT   Managers/supervisors who are skilled in the process of empowerment use their own organizational power and personal leadership skills to provide others with the resources they need to be highly effective.  They empower their Direct Reports, of course, but they also empower their leaders and peers rather than attempt to undermine their power and influence.

TRUST BUILDING   Managers who are trust builders possess several interacting qualities such as personal integrity, technical competence, leadership skills, and excellent judgment that cause others to view them as trustworthy and make such managers centers of trust building within any organization or group of which they are a part.

DECISION MAKING   Effective managerial decisions reflect a sense of purpose, good judgment, personal integrity, and a balanced concern for organizational goals and the worth of the individual through whom those goals are achieved.

INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS   Managers/supervisors with superior interpersonal relations establish long-term relationships of trust, cooperation, mutual respect, and mutual support.  When appropriate, they skillfully challenge, disagree, and confront others, but they do so without destroying these valued relationships.

MOTIVATING SKILLS   Managers/supervisors with superior motivating skills are effective in providing the rewards, inspiration, and trust that others need for peak performance.  These skills are expressed in all relationships, not solely in relationships with direct reports.

ADAPTABILITY   Leaders who are adaptable serve as change agents within their organizations; they also change and grow as needed to deal realistically with current and anticipated changes—in markets, the economy, the needs and demands of individuals, and the culture in general.

CONCERN FOR PRODUCTIVITY   Managers/supervisors with a high concern for productivity accept full responsibility for achieving high productivity in the unit(s) they manage while, at the same time, fulfilling their responsibility to their employees, customers, and other stakeholders.

LEADERSHIP   By definition, effective leaders are highly influential.  Whenever possible, they motivate with rewards, persuasion, trust building, and inspiration rather than intimidation and coercion.  By these and other means, effective leaders transform subordinates into productive followers who share their values and goals.

OPTIONAL SCALES (5 included in standard DNi)

TEAM BUILDING characterizes leaders who are themselves team players and who inspire followers to develop a broad repertoire of job-related skills, to flexibly change roles as called for by each new situation, to be highly cooperative, and to collectively focus on achieving their assigned objectives.

PARTICIPATIVE LEADERSHIP STYLE characterizes leaders who are effective in maximizing the contributions of their direct reports by involving them in decision making, quality and productivity improvement, and other managerial functions that less participative leaders reserve for themselves.

ASSERTIVENESS is the free expression of one’s right to communicate ideas, beliefs, opinions and feelings to others (in contrast to non-assertiveness, which is a failure to express those rights, and aggressiveness, which is communication that infringes on the rights of others).

PERSUASIVENESS is a leaders’ demonstrated motivation and ability to influence others through reasoning, knowledge, expertise, and earned trust in situations where less persuasive leaders would influence by means of their formal authority (command and obedience).

DISCIPLINARY ACTION refers to a leader’s effectiveness in taking disciplinary action that is appropriate for the offense, timely, typically viewed as fair, and that is generally successful in preventing the reoccurrence of undesirable behaviors.

INITIATIVE characterizes leaders who are self-starters; they solve problems they could easily ignore; they identify and take advantage of opportunities; they need little or no direct supervision.

PLANNING is the process, appropriate at all levels of management, by which (1) leaders decide what they want to achieve and (2) develop appropriate strategies for achieving it.

CONTROL refers to a leader’s ability to communicate an organization’s standards and expectations and to take appropriate action to make sure they are met.  This scale places high value on internal controls—a leader’s ability to control by inspiring followers to internalize the organization’s vision, values, and goals rather than control with bureaucratic rules and fear of punishment.

TIME ORGANIZATION, as operationally defined by the items in this scale, is leaders’ wise and efficient use of time to achieve organizational objectives and their success in motivating and training their direct reports to do likewise.

MOTIVATION LEVEL is a leader’s inclination (1) to exert a high level of goal-directed energy in the fulfillment of her/his managerial responsibilities and (2) to conscientiously uphold high organizational standards and high self-expectations.

COMMITMENT TO PERSONAL GROWTH is a leader’s commitment to continual improvement.  Managers who score high on this scale are motivated to learn and take advantage of experiences that will require stretching and improve their skills.  They are open-minded and teachable.

DEVELOPMENT OF DIRECT REPORTS measures the extent to which managers are committed to and effective in improving the knowledge, skill, and personal qualifications of their direct reports.

INNOVATION characterizes the manager who is creative in generating solutions to problems, is a change agent, and is a leader in keeping the company abreast of the current trends.

GOAL DIRECTEDNESS characterizes managers who approach their work with a clear sense of purpose and direction.  They consciously and deliberately decide on their priorities and concentrate their attention and energies accordingly.  As leaders, their own goals find expression in the goals of their followers.

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